How does a cellular phone work?

Cellular Phone and mobile data technology

Cellular Phone

Mobile phones have become a universal and indispensable part for modern life. You cannot imagine your daily life without it. With a cell phone, you can talk to anybody on the planet earth from almost anywhere. But you might be curious to know how does a mobile phone works?

In the most basic form, a cellular phone is essentially a two-way radio. It consists of a radio transmitter and a receiver. When you talk with your friends and family on your cell phone in other side of the planet, your phone converts your voice into an electrical signal, which is then transmitted via radio waves or micro-wave to the nearest transmission tower. The network of cell towers then relays the radio wave or micro-wave to the destination cell phone, which converts it to an electrical signal and then back to sound again. This entire phenomenon happens in nano-second at the speed of light.

In its fundamental form, a cell phone works just like a walkie-talkie. In additional to its basic function of voice calls, most modern cell phones e.g., smart phones come with additional functionalities such as browsing the internet, taking pictures and video, sending text and video messages and playing music and games, streaming movie and YouTube video. Modern smart phones can perform similar functions of a portable computer.

Cellular Data Transmission

Waves transport digitized voice or data in the form of oscillating electric and magnetic fields called the electromagnetic field (EMF). The rate of oscillation is called the frequency. Waves carry the information and travel in air at the speed of light. Cell phones transmit radio waves in all directions to reach to the nearest cell tower.

The start of a cellular phone begins with bulky analog device of several pounds back in 1973. The first handheld cellular mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing 2 kilograms (4.4 lbs.). Now it is as iWatch and other miniature smart device form.

There are estimated over 8 billion people using cellular phones in this planet.

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